Clinical Evidence: Optoaspis
Two-Year Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of Black Currant Anthocyanins on Visual Field in Glaucoma
Hiroshi Ohguro et al
Aim: To examine the influence of the black currant anthocyanins (BCACs) on the disease progression of open-angle glaucoma (OAG), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked trial was made in 38 patients with OAG treated by antiglaucoma drops.
Methods: BCACs (50 mg/day, n = 19) or their placebos (n = 19) were orally administered once daily for a 24-month period. Systemic blood pressure, pulse rates, intraocular pressure (IOP), ocular blood circulation by laserspeckle flowgraphy, and Humphrey visual field mean deviation (MD) were measured during the 24-month period.
Results: As a main outcome measurement, we evaluated the difference between the groups in MD deterioration in the eye with a better MD from the trial’s baseline through 24 months. A statistically significant difference was observed between the treatment groups in mean change from baseline in MD 24 months after therapy (p = 0.039, unpaired test). Upon administration of BCACs, the ocular blood flows during the 24-month observational period increased in comparison with placebo-treated patients. However, no significant changes were observed in systemic and ocular conditions including IOP during the 24-month period.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that oral administration of BCACs may be a safe and promising supplement for patients with OAG in addition to antiglaucoma medication
Ophthalmologica 2012;228:26–35 DOI: 10.1159/000335961
Cytoprotective Effect of Astaxanthin in a Model of Normal Intraocular Pressure Glaucoma
Kasumi Kikuchi et al
Glaucoma is characterized by axonal degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and apoptotic death of their cell bodies. Lowering intraocular pressure is currently the only way to treat glaucoma, but it is often insufficient to inhibit the progression of the disease. Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease, and the involvement of oxidative stress has recently received much attention. In the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of astaxanthin (AST) on RGC degeneration using a normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) mouse model, which lacks the glutamate/aspartate transporter (Glast) and demonstrates spontaneous RGC and optic nerve degeneration without elevated intraocular pressure.) Three-week-old Glast± mice were given intraperitoneal injections of AST at 10, 30, or 60 mg/kg/day or vehicle alone, and littermate control mice were given vehicle alone for 14 days, respectively. Five weeks after birth, the number of RGCs was counted in paraffin sections of retinal tissues stained with hematoxylin and eosin. We also used a retrograde labeling technique to quantify the number of RGCs. Additionally, the phosphorylated (p) IκB/total IκB ratio and the 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) were measured in retinal tissues.) The number of RGCs in Glast± mice was significantly decreased compared with that in control mice. RGC loss was suppressed by the administration of ASTat 60 mg/kg/day, compared with vehicle alone. Following AST administration, the concentration of 4-HNE in the retina was also suppressed, but the pIκB/IκB ratio did not change. Our study revealed that the antioxidative stress effects of AST inhibit RGC degeneration in the retina and may be useful in the treatment of NTG.
Journal of Ophthalmology Volume 2020, Article ID 9539681, 6 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/9539681
Oral Administration of Forskolin and Rutin Contributes to Intraocular Pressure Control in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients Under Maximum Tolerated Medical Therapy
Michele Vetrugno et al
Background: Tight control of intraocular pressure (IOP) is still the only therapeutic approach available for the treatment of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). However, some patients do not respond adequately to hypotonising drugs, and despite multiple drug combinations they cannot reach their target IOP. Forskolin is a natural compound that has already shown efficacy in IOP reduction following topical application.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on the IOP of a food supplement containing forskolin and rutin when administered to POAG patients under maximum tolerated medical therapy (MTMT) and on a waiting list for filtrating surgery to further decrease their IOP.
Methods: The design of the study was open and case controlled. Ninety-seven (52 in the treatment group, and 45 in the reference group) patients were enrolled in 8 different glaucoma centers in Italy, all under MTMT and with IOP enrollment values above their target pressure. During the 30 days before surgery, patients in the treatment group were prescribed 2 tablets per day of a food supplement containing rutin and forskolin in addition to their usual topical drug treatment. Their IOP values were measured at 3 time points during the day, at enrollment and once a week until surgery. Control patients continued only with their normal topical therapy.
Results: All patients in the treatment group, independently of the combination drug therapy that they were taking, showed a further 10% decrease (P < 0.01) of their IOP, starting from 1 week after introduction of the oral supplement and lasting until the last evaluation before surgery. This decrease was more evident (15% of the enrollment value; P < 0.01) in those subjects with high (IOP ‡ 21 mmHg) enrollment values rather than in those with low (IOP < 21) enrollment values (9%; P < 0.01). On the contrary, IOP values in the control group remained stable from the beginning to the end of the observation period, independently of their enrollment values.
Conclusions: Forskolin and rutin given as oral treatment appear to contribute to a better control and a further small reduction of IOP in patients who were poorly responsive to multitherapy treatment.
Journal Of Ocular Pharmacology And Therapeutics Volume 28, Number 5, 2012DOI: 10.1089/jop.2012.0021
Increased Homocysteine Levels in Tear Fluid of Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma
J.B. Roedl et al
Aims: We assessed homocysteine (Hcy) levels in tear fluid and plasma of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We determined the association between Hcy levels, dry eye syndrome and B vitamin status.
Methods: This prospective case-control study included 36 patients with POAG and 36 controls. Hcy concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography.
Results: Patients with POAG had significantly higher mean Hcy levels both in tear fluid (205 8 84 nmol/l; p ! 0.001, t test) and in plasma (13.43 8 3.53 mol/l; p = 0.001, t test) than control subjects (130 8 53 nmol/l and 10.50 8 3.33 mol/l, respectively). Hcy in tear fluid was significantly correlated with plasma Hcy in POAG patients (r = 0.459; p = 0.005, Pearson’s correlation), but not in controls (r = 0.068; p = 0.695). POAG patients with dry eye disease had significantly higher Hcy levels both in tear fluid and plasma than POAG patients without dry eye disease. There was no association between Hcy levels and B vitamin status in subjects with POAG.
Conclusions: The study suggests increased Hcy levels in tear fluid and plasma of patients with POAG. Elevated Hcy levels might be a risk factor for POAG and dry eye syndrome in subjects with glaucoma.
Ophthalmic Res 2008;40:249–256 DOI: 10.1159/000127832